Non-Emergency Food Aid
Some of the Title II funds are reserved for 3-5 year developmental programs called “multiyear assistance programs,” or “MYAPs.” In fiscal year 2009, $375 million was provided for this purpose and the level is increasing by $25 million each year until it reaches $450 million in fiscal year 2012. USAID issues a list of eligible countries and PVOs are invited to submit proposals.
Development of a proposal by a PVO takes several months and includes the following steps:
- Within a priority country, identify areas of greatest need through consultations with U.S. and recipient country officials and nongovernmental organizations. Also review statistical information from nationwide and regional surveys conducted by recipient countries, the UN, and other recognized sources. Such data may include mortality rates of children under the age of five, infant mortality rates, prevalence of malnutrition among children, percentage of people living under the poverty line, susceptibility to drought, and prevalence of disease, such as HIV/AIDS.
- Once areas of greatest need are pinpointed, meet with local administrators, associations and community members to determine what types of services are already being provided, which services are lacking, and the types of interventions that would be most helpful. PVOs use focus groups, rapid surveys, and other methods to narrow down the target population to those with greatest need and to identify the problems that should be addressed
- Work with local partners to design and implement programs. Inclusion of both men and women and a wide spectrum of the community members will help assure that the program design will meet the community’s needs.
- Identify the appropriate products for distribution to targeted community members (often children 6-49 months, school children, people living with HIV/AIDS, or participants in food-for-work infrastructure projects). In a net food-importing country it may also be appropriate to import a small amount of a commodity that is short support: sell it through commercial channels, and use the sales proceeds in the country to conduct developmental activities that complement food distribution.
- Conduct market analysis to ensure that donated food aid products will not interfere with local agricultural production or commercial markets.
- Submit a proposal that meets USAID’s regulatory and policy requirements. It includes the needs assessment, target population, types and amounts of commodities and schedule for delivery, market analysis, operational plan, and monitoring and evaluation plan. The proposal must also demonstrate coordination with the recipient country’s development plans, USAID’s strategic objectives for that country and the U.S. Government’s food security plan. Activities typically include improving agricultural production and marketing, natural resource management, health and household nutrition (especially mother-child health and nutrition), and micro enterprise.
After the PVO signs the MYAP agreement with USAID, it can order the commodities and receive support funds for the first fiscal year. At the end of each fiscal year, the PVO submits an “Annual Resource Report,” which describes progress and accomplishments measured against the project’s objectives and indicators. A pipeline and resource estimate is also prepared, which identifies and justifies the program budget and commodities for the new fiscal year.